Data from "Positive charge in the K-loop of the kinesin-3 motor KIF1A regulates superprocessivity by enhancing microtubule affinity in the one-head–bound state"
KIF1A is an essential neuronal transport motor protein in the kinesin-3 family, known for its superprocessive motility. However, structural features underlying this function are unclear. Here, we determined that superprocessivity of KIF1A dimers originates from a unique structural domain, the lysine-rich insertion in loop-12 termed the ‘K-loop’, which enhances electrostatic interactions between the motor and the microtubule. In 80 mM PIPES buffer, replacing the native KIF1A loop-12 with that of kinesin-1 resulted in a 6-fold decrease in run length, whereas adding additional positive charge to loop-12 enhanced the run length. Interestingly, swapping the KIF1A loop-12 into kinesin-1 did not enhance its run length, consistent with the two motor families using different mechanochemical tuning to achieve persistent transport. To investigate the mechanism by which the KIF1A K-loop enhances processivity, we used microtubule pelleting and single-molecule dwell time assays in ATP and ADP. First, the microtubule affinity was similar in ATP and in ADP, consistent with the motor spending the majority of its cycle in a weakly bound state. Second, the microtubule affinity and single-molecule dwell time in ADP were 6-fold lower in the loop-swap mutant than WT. Thus, the positive charge in loop-12 of KIF1A enhances the run length by stabilizing binding of the motor in its vulnerable one-head–bound state. Finally, through a series of mutants with varying positive charge in the K-loop, we found that KIF1A processivity is linearly dependent on the charge of loop-12, further highlighting how loop-12 contributes to the function of this key motor protein.
|Data from "Positive charge in the K-loop of the kinesin-3 motor KIF1A regulates superprocessivity by enhancing microtubule affinity in the one-head–bound state"
|CC BY 4.0 (Attribution)
|November 14, 2022
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