Sarcoidosis: Evaluation and Treatment

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that can involve any organ. Ongoing dyspnea and dry cough in a young to middle-aged adult should increase the suspicion for sarcoidosis. Symptoms can present at any age and affect any organ system; however, pulmonary sarcoidosis is the most common. Extrapulmonary manifestations often involve cardiac, neurologic, ocular, and cutaneous systems. Patients with sarcoidosis can exhibit constitutional symptoms such as fever, unintentional weight loss, and fatigue. The early recognition and diagnosis of sarcoidosis are challenging because there is no diagnostic standard for testing, initial symptoms vary, and patients may be asymptomatic. Consensus guidelines recommend a holistic approach when diagnosing sarcoidosis that focuses on clinical presentation and radiographic findings, biopsy with evidence of noncaseating granulomas, involvement of more than one organ system, and elimination of other etiologies of granulomatous disease. Corticosteroids are the initial treatment for active disease, with refractory cases often requiring immunosuppressive or biologic therapies. Transplantation can be considered for advanced and end-stage disease depending on organ involvement.



Work Title Sarcoidosis: Evaluation and Treatment
Open Access
  1. Michael Partin
  2. Karl T. Clebak
  3. Rensa Chen
  4. Matthew Helm
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. American Family Physician
Publication Date January 1, 2024
Deposited March 25, 2024




This resource is currently not in any collection.

Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added Sarcoidosis_Evaluation_and_Tr.pdf
  • Added Creator Michael Partin
  • Added Creator Karl T. Clebak
  • Added Creator Rensa Chen
  • Added Creator Matthew Helm
  • Published
  • Updated