Vertical ground reaction force estimation from benchmark nonstationary kinematic data

Time-differentiating kinematic signals from optical motion capture amplifies the inherent noise content of those signals. Commonly, biomechanists address this problem by applying a Butterworth filter with the same cutoff frequency to all noisy displacement signals prior to differentiation. Nonstationary signals, those with time-varying frequency content, are widespread in biomechanics (eg, those containing an impact) and may necessitate a different filtering approach. A recently introduced signal filtering approach wherein signals are divided into sections based on their energy content and then Butterworth filtered with section-specific cutoff frequencies improved second derivative estimates in a nonstationary kinematic signal. Utilizing this signal-section filtering approach for estimating running vertical ground reaction forces saw more of the signal’s high-frequency content surrounding heel strike maintained without allowing inappropriate amounts of noise contamination in the remainder of the signal. Thus, this signal-section filtering approach resulted in superior estimates of vertical ground reaction forces compared with approaches that either used the same filter cutoff frequency across the entirety of each signal or across the entirety of all signals. Filtering kinematic signals using this signal-section filtering approach is useful in processing data from tasks containing an impact when accurate signal second derivative estimation is of interest.



Work Title Vertical ground reaction force estimation from benchmark nonstationary kinematic data
Open Access
  1. Daniel J. Davis
  2. John H. Challis
  1. Signal processing
  2. Non-stationary signals
  3. Filtering
  4. Kinematics
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Publication Date March 8, 2021
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
Deposited August 01, 2022




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Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added Challis_SegmentFiltering_JournalOfAppliedBiomechanics.pdf
  • Added Creator Daniel J. Davis
  • Added Creator John H. Challis
  • Published
  • Updated Keyword, Publication Date Show Changes
    • Signal processing, Non-stationary signals, Filtering, Kinematics
    Publication Date
    • 2021-06-01
    • 2021-03-08