Buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata) resistant to 2,4-D in Pennsylvania and alternative control options

Buckhorn plantain populations purportedly resistant to 2,4-D were identified in Pennsylvania following long-Term, continual applications of the active ingredient to turfgrass. The research objectives of this study were to 1) confirm 2,4-D resistance with dose-response experiments, 2) confirm field resistance of buckhorn plantain to 2,4-D in Pennsylvania, and 3) evaluate alternative herbicides for 2,4-D-resistant buckhorn plantain. Greenhouse dose-response experiments evaluated the sensitivity of buckhorn plantain biotypes that were resistant or susceptible to 2,4-D, and to halauxifen-methyl, two synthetic auxin herbicides from different chemical families. The resistant biotype was ≥11.3 times less sensitive to 2,4-D than the susceptible biotype and required a 2,4-D dosage ≥4.2 times greater than the standard application rate to reach 50% necrosis. No cross-resistance was observed to halauxifen-methyl because both resistant and susceptible populations demonstrated similar herbicide sensitivity. Field experiments confirmed previous reports of ineffectiveness (≤30% reduction) with 2,4-D and other phenoxycarboxylic herbicides in potentially resistant buckhorn plantain biotypes. Treatments containing halauxifen-methyl resulted in a ≥70% reduction in resistant biotypes. This is the first known report of synthetic auxin herbicide resistance in any weed species in Pennsylvania and highlights emerging herbicide resistance challenges in turfgrass systems.

This article has been published in a revised form in Weed Technology [https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2020.116]. This version is published under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND. No commercial re-distribution or re-use allowed. Derivative works cannot be distributed. © copyright holder.



Work Title Buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata) resistant to 2,4-D in Pennsylvania and alternative control options
Open Access
  1. Travis R. Russell
  2. Tim T. Lulis
  3. Brian A. Aynardi
  4. Kaiyuan T. Tang
  5. John E. Kaminski
License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives)
Work Type Article
  1. Weed Technology
Publication Date April 1, 2021
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
  1. https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2020.116
Deposited October 12, 2021




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Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added buckhorn-plantain-plantago-lanceolata-resistant-to-24-d-in-pennsylvania-and-alternative-control-options.pdf
  • Added Creator Travis R. Russell
  • Added Creator Tim T. Lulis
  • Added Creator Brian A. Aynardi
  • Added Creator Kaiyuan T. Tang
  • Added Creator John E. Kaminski
  • Published
  • Updated
  • Updated