GM-CSF enhances protective immunity to cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E8 genetic vaccination in rabbits

We have reported previously that cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) E8 gene immunization induced strong protection against virus challenge. In this study, we primed E8 gene vaccination with mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF), a cytokine that induces differentiation and local recruitment of professional antigen-presenting cells. EIII/JC inbred rabbits were divided into four groups receiving vaccinations with the following constructs: mGM-CSF plus E8, mGM-CSF only, E8 only and vector only. After three immunizations at intervals of 3 weeks, rabbits were challenged with viral DNA at six scarified sites. Papillomas grew on all vaccinated rabbits 4 weeks after inoculation. At week 5, papillomas on four rabbits of mGM-CSF plus E8 and one of E8 only rabbits began to regress. At week 11, all the papillomas on rabbits in the GM-CSF plus E8 vaccination group regressed (regression rate = 100%); regression rates of the mGM-CSF only and E8 only vaccination groups were 50 and 25%, respectively. All papillomas on the vector immunized rabbits remained persistent until the end of the experiment (0%). Antibodies to mGM-CSF were detected in rabbit serum by Western blot. Rabbits vaccinated with E8 plus mGM-CSF or E8 only group had positive Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test to different E8 peptides. These results demonstrated that mGM-CSF could enhance the effects of E8 immunization in rabbits to CRPV infection through cell-mediated immune responses.


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Work Title GM-CSF enhances protective immunity to cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E8 genetic vaccination in rabbits
Open Access
  1. Jiafen Hu
  2. Nancy M. Cladel
  3. Zhaohui Wang
  4. Ricai Han
  5. Martin D. Pickel
  6. Neil Christensen
  1. Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus
  2. GM-CSF
  3. E8 vaccination
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Vaccine
Publication Date November 13, 2003
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
Deposited January 30, 2023




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Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added Vaccine2004.pdf
  • Added Creator Jiafen Hu
  • Added Creator Nancy M. Cladel
  • Added Creator Zhaohui Wang
  • Added Creator Ricai Han
  • Added Creator Martin D. Pickel
  • Added Creator Neil Christensen
  • Published
  • Updated Keyword, Publication Date Show Changes
    • Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, GM-CSF, E8 vaccination
    Publication Date
    • 2004-03-12
    • 2003-11-13
  • Updated