I will use declarative self-talk . . . or will I? Replication, extension, and meta-analyses

A series of studies was conducted by Senay et al. in 2010 to replicate and extend research indicating that self-posed questions have performance benefits. Studies 1-3 compared the effects of the self-posed interrogative question ("Will I?") to declarative ("I will") and control self-talk, and found no significant group differences in motivation, perceived exertion, or performance. In Studies 4-5, interrogative, declarative, and control self-talk primes were compared, and no outcome differences were found. In Study 6, the effects of self-talk on motivation, perceived exertion, and physical performance were assessed. The self-talk groups performed better and were more motivated than the control group, but declarative and interrogative groups did not differ from each other. Finally, meta-analyses of the six studies indicated no significant differences among conditions. These results highlight the value of replication and suggest that factors other than grammatical form of self-posed questions may drive the demonstrated relationships between self-talk and performance.



Work Title I will use declarative self-talk . . . or will I? Replication, extension, and meta-analyses
Open Access
  1. Judy L. Van Raalte
  2. Allen E. Cornelius
  3. Elizabeth M. Mullin
  4. Britton W. Brewer
  5. Erika D. Van Dyke
  6. Alicia J. Johnson
  7. Takehiro Iwatsuki
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Sport Psychologist
Publication Date March 1, 2018
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
  1. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2016-0088
Deposited November 28, 2021




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Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added I_will_use_declarative_self_talk..._or_will_I.pdf
  • Added Creator Judy L. Van Raalte
  • Added Creator Allen E. Cornelius
  • Added Creator Elizabeth M. Mullin
  • Added Creator Britton W. Brewer
  • Added Creator Erika D. Van Dyke
  • Added Creator Alicia J. Johnson
  • Added Creator Takehiro Iwatsuki
  • Published
  • Updated
  • Updated