Stable nitride precipitation in additively manufactured nickel superalloys

With negligible quantities of nitrogen, wrought and welded solid solution strengthened nickel superalloys usually contain carbides and topologically close-packed phases, such as Laves phase. However, appreciable nitrogen levels on the order of 0.1 % mass fraction drove the precipitation of a range of unanticipated nitride phases in additively manufactured Inconel 625 in the as-deposited and post process hot isostatically pressed conditions. Different nitride phases were observed with small changes in alloy chemistry. Cubic metal nitrides (MN), tetragonal Z-phase (CrNbN), and diamond-cubic metal η-nitrides (M6N) were found within the γ matrix of Inconel 625 containing relatively low Fe (1 %), low Ti (0.02 %), and high Si (0.39 %) mass fractions. Conversely, these phases were replaced by only MN nitrides in a similar Inconel 625 alloy with elevated mass fractions of Ti (0.21 %) and Fe (4 %). These various phases, however, were not fully predicted using state-of-the-art computational thermodynamic tools and databases, indicating a sparsity of data for nickel superalloys. Even after hot isostatic pressing, many nitrides persisted and only experienced slight changes in composition and lattice parameters in both materials. The stability of these nitride phases presents a potential pathway for achieving enhanced high temperature and creep properties within this and similar alloy systems.


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Work Title Stable nitride precipitation in additively manufactured nickel superalloys
Open Access
  1. J. S. Zuback
  2. A. D. Iams
  3. F. Zhang
  4. L. A. Giannuzzi
  5. T. A. Palmer
  1. Additive manufacturing
  2. Nickel superalloy
  3. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD)
  4. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Publication Date April 14, 2022
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
Deposited July 27, 2022




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Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added Manuscript_Revised.docx
  • Added Creator J. S. Zuback
  • Added Creator A. D. Iams
  • Added Creator F. Zhang
  • Added Creator L. A. Giannuzzi
  • Added Creator T. A. Palmer
  • Published
  • Updated Keyword, Publication Date Show Changes
    • Additive manufacturing, Nickel superalloy, Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CALPHAD
    Publication Date
    • 2022-07-25
    • 2022-04-14