Incident Impaired Cognitive Function in Sarcopenic Obesity

Objectives: The prevalence of obesity with sarcopenia is increasing in adults aged ≥65 years. This geriatric syndrome places individuals at risk for synergistic complications that leads to long-term functional decline. We ascertained the relationship between sarcopenic obesity and incident long-term impaired global cognitive function in a representative US population. Design: A longitudinal, secondary data set analysis using the National Health and Aging Trends Survey. Setting: Community-based older adults in the United States. Participants: Participants without baseline impaired cognitive function aged ≥65 years with grip strength and body mass index measures. Methods: Sarcopenia was defined using the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project grip strength cut points (men <35.5 kg; women <20 kg), and obesity was defined using standard body mass index (BMI) categories. Impaired global cognition was identified as impairment in the Alzheimer's Disease-8 score or immediate/delayed recall, orientation, clock-draw test, date/person recall. Proportional hazard models ascertained the risk of impaired cognitive function over 8 years (referent = neither obesity or sarcopenia). Results: Of the 5822 participants (55.7% women), median age category was 75 to 80, and mean grip strength and BMI were 26.4 kg and 27.5 kg/m2, respectively. Baseline prevalence of sarcopenic obesity was 12.9%, with an observed subset of 21.2% participants having impaired cognitive function at follow-up. Compared with those without sarcopenia or obesity, the risk of impaired cognitive function was no different in obesity alone [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.16]), but was significantly higher in sarcopenia (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.42–1.80) and sarcopenic obesity (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.03–1.40). There was no significant interaction term between sarcopenia and obesity. Conclusions: Both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity are associated with an increased long-term risk of impaired cognitive function in older adults.



Work Title Incident Impaired Cognitive Function in Sarcopenic Obesity
Subtitle Data From the National Health and Aging Trends Survey
Open Access
  1. John A. Batsis
  2. Christian Haudenschild
  3. Robert M. Roth
  4. Tyler L. Gooding
  5. Meredith N. Roderka
  6. Travis Masterson
  7. John Brand
  8. Matthew C. Lohman
  9. Todd A. Mackenzie
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Publication Date April 1, 2021
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
Deposited November 17, 2021




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Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added incidentimpariedcognitivefunction.pdf
  • Added Creator John A. Batsis
  • Added Creator Christian Haudenschild
  • Added Creator Robert M. Roth
  • Added Creator Tyler L. Gooding
  • Added Creator Meredith N. Roderka
  • Added Creator Travis Masterson
  • Added Creator John Brand
  • Added Creator Matthew C. Lohman
  • Added Creator Todd A. Mackenzie
  • Published
  • Updated
  • Updated