Quantifying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation response to greenhouse gas increases in a forcing–feedback framework

While there is substantial evidence for tropospheric jet shift and Hadley cell expansion in response to greenhouse gas increases, quantitative assessments of individual mechanisms and feedback for atmospheric circulation changes remain lacking. We present a new forcing–feedback analysis on circulation response to increasing CO2 concentration in an aquaplanet atmospheric model. This forcing–feedback framework explicitly identifies a direct zonal wind response by holding the zonal mean zonal wind exerting on the zonal advection of eddies unchanged, in comparison with the additional feedback induced by the direct response in zonal mean zonal wind. It is shown that the zonal advection feedback accounts for nearly half of the changes to the eddy-driven jet shift and Hadley cell expansion, largely contributing to the subtropical precipitation decline, when the CO2 concentration varies over a range of climates. The direct response in temperature displays the well-known tropospheric warming pattern to CO2 increases, but the feedback exhibits negative signals. The direct response in eddies is characterized by a reduction in upward wave propagation and a poleward shift of midlatitude eddy momentum flux (EMF) convergence, likely due to an increase in static stability from moist thermodynamic adjustment. In contrast, the feedback features a dipole pattern in EMF that further shifts and strengthens midlatitude EMF convergence, resulting from the upper-level zonal wind increase seen in the direct response. Interestingly, the direct response produces an increase in eddy kinetic energy (EKE), but the feedback weakens EKE. Thus, the forcing–feedback framework highlights the distinct effect of zonal mean advecting wind from direct thermodynamic effects in atmospheric response to greenhouse gas increases.



Work Title Quantifying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation response to greenhouse gas increases in a forcing–feedback framework
Open Access
  1. Pengfei Zhang
  2. Gang Chen
  3. Yi Ming
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Journal of Climate
Publication Date September 1, 2021
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
  1. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0778.1
Deposited November 17, 2021




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  • Added Creator Gang Chen
  • Added Creator Yi Ming
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