Modeling and friction estimation for automotive steering torque at very low speeds

The torque developed in the steering system of an automobile is a result of multiple interactions between a tire and the roadway surface. Models are well established for high-speed ground vehicle operation where the tire is rolling rapidly and the dominant source of tire tread stress is deformation due to lateral force on the tire. In contrast, for situations where the vehicle is operating at low speeds or even steering when stationary, the torque required to turn the wheels is predominantly a function of the steering rate. However, the torque still can be predicted using models of the de- formation of the tire rubber. This paper introduces such a model of the tire dynamics that considers the low-speed tire deformation behaviour considering the interacting effects of steering while the tire is slowly rolling, allowing for the prediction of steering torques during low speed manoeuvring. The physics-based model is validated with steering torque data from an instrumented steer-by-wire vehicle. The validated model also allows for opportunistic friction estimation in certain steady conditions by in- version of the model with the steering rate, steering torque, and vehicle speed as input data.



Work Title Modeling and friction estimation for automotive steering torque at very low speeds
Open Access
  1. Craig E. Beal
  2. Sean N Brennan
  1. Automotive Steering
License All rights reserved
Work Type Article
  1. International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility
Publication Date January 1, 2020
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
Deposited June 30, 2020




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  • Added Creator Craig E. Beal
  • Added Creator Sean N Brennan
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