Gender, nonformal education, and earnings in South Korea

Using data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies, this study examined gender differences in participation in various forms of nonformal learning–on-the-job training, distance learning, workshops and private lessons–and their relationships with earnings in South Korea. The authors found significant gender differences in participation in on-the-job training, distance learning, and workshops favouring male workers, but the reverse gender gap in participation in private lessons favouring female workers. When it came to earnings, the authors found the positive relationships between participation in distance learning and earnings and between workshops and earnings for both males and females, even after controlling for other variables. However, the positive relationship between participation in on-the-job training and earnings was observed only for females. The authors highlight some unique aspects of Korea’s organisational culture that may help explain the relationships among gender, on-the-job training and earnings. Broader implications of the findings beyond South Korea are also discussed.

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in 'Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education' on 2019-04-11, available online:



Work Title Gender, nonformal education, and earnings in South Korea
Open Access
  1. Kibum Kwon
  2. Jiwon Park
  3. Soo-yong Byun
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Informa UK Limited
Publication Date April 11, 2019
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
  1. 10.1080/03057925.2019.1596017
  1. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
Deposited September 09, 2021




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Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added 2019_Kwon_Park_and_Byun_Compare-1.pdf
  • Added Creator Kibum Kwon
  • Added Creator Jiwon Park
  • Added Creator Soo-yong Byun
  • Published
  • Updated
  • Updated