Title IX at 50: The Past, Present, and Uncertain Future in Women’s Sports

This article is a critical celebration of Title IX. Fifty years of this landmark civil rights legislation has brought tremendous progress for girls and women in all areas of the U.S. educational system—including sport. However, Title IX has yet to achieve its full potential. For this to happen, I propose nine pressing issues that must be addressed: enforcing compliance; the use of roster management and other dubious compliance tactics; the need for more opportunities for women of color; addressing the leadership gap; the structure of sex-segregated sport; transgender inclusion; name, image and likeness (NIL); the athletic arms race; and sexual harassment and violence. Based on current, scholarship, published data, and contemporary examples, this “nine for IX” approach is not a critique of the law but rather a critique those aspects of American interscholastic and intercollegiate sport that continually hamstring Title IX’s power.



Work Title Title IX at 50: The Past, Present, and Uncertain Future in Women’s Sports
Open Access
  1. Jessica Lynn Schultz
  1. Gender equity
  2. Civil rights legislation
  3. Interscholastic sports
  4. Intercollegiate sports
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal
Publication Date September 19, 2022
Publisher Identifier (DOI)
  1. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2022-0032
Deposited February 17, 2023




This resource is currently not in any collection.

Work History

Version 1

  • Created
  • Added 1938-1581-article-p97__1_.pdf
  • Added Creator Jessica Lynn Schultz
  • Published
  • Updated Keyword, Publisher, Publisher Identifier (DOI), and 1 more Show Changes
    • Gender equity, Civil rights legislation, Interscholastic sports, Intercollegiate sports
    • Women, Sport and Physical Activity Journal
    • Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal
    Publisher Identifier (DOI)
    • https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2022-0032
    Publication Date
    • 2022-01-01
    • 2022-09-19
  • Updated