Title IX at 50: The Past, Present, and Uncertain Future in Women’s Sports

This article is a critical celebration of Title IX. Fifty years of this landmark civil rights legislation has brought tremendous progress for girls and women in all areas of the U.S. educational system—including sport. However, Title IX has yet to achieve its full potential. For this to happen, I propose nine pressing issues that must be addressed: enforcing compliance; the use of roster management and other dubious compliance tactics; the need for more opportunities for women of color; addressing the leadership gap; the structure of sex-segregated sport; transgender inclusion; name, image and likeness (NIL); the athletic arms race; and sexual harassment and violence. Based on current, scholarship, published data, and contemporary examples, this “nine for IX” approach is not a critique of the law but rather a critique those aspects of American interscholastic and intercollegiate sport that continually hamstring Title IX’s power.



Work Title Title IX at 50: The Past, Present, and Uncertain Future in Women’s Sports
Open Access
  1. Jessica Lynn Schultz
License In Copyright (Rights Reserved)
Work Type Article
  1. Women, Sport and Physical Activity Journal
Publication Date January 1, 2022
Deposited February 17, 2023




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