Pharmaceuticals in private wells located in Central PA Public

Pharmaceuticals, including both over-the-counter and prescription medications, are classified as pollutants of emerging concern. They have the potential to create environmental and potential human health impacts, especially when they are present in drinking water. Private wells are important drinking water sources globally, but remain understudied. Groundwater from private wells typically undergo minimal onsite drinking water treatment before use, making its use as a drinking water source particularly vulnerable to contamination. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of seven pharmaceuticals in private wells located in central Pennsylvania. By partnering with the Pennsylvania Master Well Owner Network (MWON), water samples were collected from 26 households with private wells in the West Branch of the Susquehanna River Basin in central Pennsylvania in winter 2017.

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GENERAL INFORMATION

Pharmaceuticals in private wells located in Central PA

Author Information

Principal Investigator Contact Information
Name: Dr. Heather E. Gall, Assistant Professor
Institution:The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Address:252 Agricultural Engineering Building
Shortlidge Road
University Park, PA 16802
Email:heg12@psu.edu

Associate or Co-investigator Contact Information
Name: Dr. Herschel Elliott, Professor
Institution:The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Address:253 Agricultural Engineering Building
Shortlidge Road
University Park, PA 16802
Email:hae1@psu.edu

Associate or Co-investigator Contact Information
Name: Dr. John (Jack) Watson, Professor
Institution:The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management
Address:253 Agricultural Engineering Building
Shortlidge Road
University Park, PA 16802
Email:jackwatson@psu.edu

Associate or Co-investigator Contact Information
Name: Bryan Swistock, Senior Water Resources Extension Associate
Institution:The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management
Address:308 Forest Resources Building
University Park, PA 16802
Email:brs@psu.edu

Associate or Co-investigator Contact Information
Name: James A. Clark, Water Resources Extension Educator
Institution:The Pennsylvania State University
Address:
University Park, PA 16802
Email:jac20@psu.edu

Alternate Contact Information
Name:Faith A. Kibuye
Institution:The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Address:229 Agricultural Engineering Building
Shortlidge Road
University Park, PA 16802
Email:faithkibuye@gmail.com

Abstract/Description of research:

Pharmaceuticals, including both over-the-counter and prescription medications, are classified as pollutants of emerging concern. They have the potential to create environmental and potential human health impacts, especially when they are present in drinking water. Private wells are important drinking water sources globally, but remain understudied. Groundwater from private wells typically undergo minimal onsite drinking water treatment before use, making its use as a drinking water source particularly vulnerable to contamination. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of seven pharmaceuticals in private wells located in central Pennsylvania. By partnering with the Pennsylvania Master Well Owner Network (MWON), water samples were collected from 26 households with private wells in the West Branch of the Susquehanna River Basin in central Pennsylvania in winter 2017.

Date of data collection (single date, range, approximate date)

winter of 2017 (January 29 to March 9)

Information about funding sources that supported the collection of the data

The Pennsylvania Sea Grant

SHARING/ACCESS INFORMATION

Licenses/restrictions placed on the data:

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Links to publications that cite or use the data:

  • Kibuye, F.A., H.E. Gall, K.R. Elkin, B. Swistock, T.L. Veith, J.E. Watson, and H.A. Elliott. 2019. Occurrence, concentrations, and risks of pharmaceutical compounds in private wells in Central Pennsylvania. Journal of Environmental Quality, In press. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2018.08.0301
  • Kibuye, F.A., Elkin, K.R., Gall, H. E., Elliott, H.A., Watson, J.E., & Swistock, B. (2018). Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in private wells in Central Pennsylvania. In 2018 ASABE Annual International Meeting (p. 1-14). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.DOI: https://doi.org/10.13031/aim.201800970

Links to other publicly accessible locations of the data:

N/A

Links/relationships to ancillary data sets:

N/A

Was data derived from another source?

N/A

Recommended citation for the data:

  • Kibuye, F.A., H.E. Gall, K.R. Elkin,2019. "Pharmaceuticals in private wells located in Central PA."

DATA & FILE OVERVIEW

File List

  • A. Filename: Pharmaceuticals in private wells located in Central PA
  • B. Short description:
    Data presented in this work summarizes the concentration of pharmaceuticals in groundwater samples collected from 26 private wells and springs in the West Branch of the Susquehanna River Basin. Concentrations in collected field blanks are also shown as well as site characteristics data gathered through a short survey sent to households.

METHODOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Description of methods used for collection/generation of data:

  • Sampling kits containing two 250-mL trace-cleaned amber glass bottles, one 250-mL bottle of deionized water for creating a field blank, a pair of latex laboratory gloves, sample collection and handling procedures, ice packs, a brief survey about the sampled well, and a prepaid return shipment label were assembled and mailed to each volunteer household. Volunteers collected their raw groundwater sample prior to any existing treatment in the household into one 250-mL trace-cleaned amber glass bottles. Participants then poured the shipped deionized water into the second 250-mL sample bottle to produce the field blank sample. This field blank was collected to understand any potential contamination that may have occurred at the time of sample collection.

Methods for processing the data:

  • Water samples were filtered through a 0.22 um polyethersulfone (PES) syringe filter after which samples were concentrated from a 500 uL volume to 20 ul volume using an inline concentrator column Hypersil Gold aQ 20x2.1 mm 12um (ThermoFisher, Sunnyvale, CA) then injected onto a 100 x 2.1mm 3um Hypersil Gold analytical column. Data presented have been censored using field and instrument blanks. All concentrations that were less than the method detection limits (MDL) have been represented as <MDL. Concentrations or values of the analytes measured between the MDLand the method quantification limit (MQL) were reported as one half of the LOQ.

Instrument- or software-specific information needed to interpret the data

  • The water samples were analyzed and quantified using a high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer (ThermoFisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany), interfaced to a chromatography system through a heated electrospray injection (HESI) source. More details on the methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometer are summarized in: Kibuye, F.A., H.E. Gall, K.R. Elkin, B. Ayers, T.L. Veith, M. Miller, S. Jacob, K.R. Hayden, J.E. Watson, and H.A. Elliott. 2019. Fate of pharmaceuticals in a spray-irrigation system: From wastewater to groundwater. Science of the Total Environment, 654: 197-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.442

Standards and calibration information, if appropriate:

  • Insturment calibration information are summarized in are summarized in: Kibuye, F.A., H.E. Gall, K.R. Elkin, B. Ayers, T.L. Veith, M. Miller, S. Jacob, K.R. Hayden, J.E. Watson, and H.A. Elliott. 2019. Fate of pharmaceuticals in a spray-irrigation system: From wastewater to groundwater. Science of the Total Environment, 654: 197-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.442

Environmental/experimental conditions:

  • All samples were collected in the winter of 2017 between January-March 2017

Describe any quality-assurance procedures performed on the data:

  • All samples were preserved on ice during transportation to laboratories for processing and analysis and stored at 4 degree Celsius before processing within 48 h of collection. Data presented have been censored using field, travel and instrument blanks.

People involved with sample collection, processing, analysis and/or submission:

  • Individuals involved in sample collection include: The Master Well Owner Network (MWON) volunteers Faith Kibuye, Dr. Heather Gall, Bryan Swistock, Joeseph Chandler, and Melanie Norwin from Penn State university. Samples were analysed by Dr. Kyle Elkin of the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit.