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Signorella (1999). Multidimensionality of gender schemas: Implications for the development of gender-related characteristics Public

The developmental implications of J. T. Spence's (e.g., 1985) gender identity theory were tested with a meta-analysis. Available data on the interrelations of gender schema measures were examined to determine if gender schemas become more differentiated with age. No clear age-related patterns emerged. However, the interpretation of the lack of age differences must await future research because there was little age variation present in these samples. Even the significant age effects that occurred must be interpreted with caution because of small numbers of samples and restricted age ranges. Thus, no sufficient data exist yet to test adequately the developmental aspect of Spence's theory.

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